Science Junkie
The Astro AlphabetBy Ethan Siege
A is for Aurora, the Earth’s polar lights,as the Sun’s hot electrons help color our nights.
B is for Black Hole, a star’s collapsed heart,if you cross its horizon, you’ll never depart.
C is for Comet, with tails, ice, and dust,a trip near the Sun makes skywatching a must!
D is for Dark Matter, the great cosmic gluethat holds clusters together, but not me and you!
E is for Eclipse, where the Moon, Earth and Suncast light-blocking shadows that can’t be outrun.
F is for Fusion, that powers the stars,as nuclei join, their released light is ours!
G is for Galaxies, in groups and alone,house billions of planets with lifeforms unknown.
H is for Hubble, for whom Earth’s no place;a telescope like this belongs up in space.
I is for Ions, making nebulae glow;as they find electrons, we capture the show.
J is for Jets, from a galaxy’s core,if you feed them right, they’ll be active once more!
K is for Kepler, whose great laws of motionkeep planets on course in the great cosmic ocean.
L is for Libration, which makes our Moon rock,it’s a trick of the orbit; it’s tidally locked!
M is for Meteors, which come in a shower,if skies are just right, you’ll see hundreds an hour!
N is for Nebula, what forms when stars die,this recycled fuel makes cosmic apple pie.
O is for Opaque, why the Milky Way’s dark,these cosmic dust lanes make starlight appear stark!
P is for Pulsar, a spinning neutron star,as the orbits tick by, we know just when we are.
Q is for Quasar, a great radio source,accelerating matter with little remorse.
R is for Rings, all gas giants possess them,even one found in another sun’s system!
S is for Spacetime, which curves due to matter,this Universe-fabric can bend but won’t shatter!
T is for Tides, caused by gravity’s tune,our oceans bulge out from the Sun and the Moon.
U is the Universe, our goal’s understanding,with billions of galaxies, as spacetime’s expanding!
V is for Virgo, our nearest great cluster,with thousands of galaxies, it’s a gut-buster!
W is for Wavelength, the energies of light,that tell us what atoms are in stars just from sight!
X is for X-rays, high-energy light,where bursts of new stars show an ionized might.
Y is the Year, where we orbit our Sun,each planet’s is different; the Earth’s is just one.
Z is for Zenith, so gaze up at the sky!The Universe is here; let’s learn what, how and why.

Source: Starts With A Bang!Image credit: Galaxy Zoo’s writing tool

The Astro Alphabet
By Ethan Siege

A is for Aurora, the Earth’s polar lights,
as the Sun’s hot electrons help color our nights.

B is for Black Hole, a star’s collapsed heart,
if you cross its horizon, you’ll never depart.

C is for Comet, with tails, ice, and dust,
a trip near the Sun makes skywatching a must!

D is for Dark Matter, the great cosmic glue
that holds clusters together, but not me and you!

E is for Eclipse, where the Moon, Earth and Sun
cast light-blocking shadows that can’t be outrun.

F is for Fusion, that powers the stars,
as nuclei join, their released light is ours!

G is for Galaxies, in groups and alone,
house billions of planets with lifeforms unknown.

H is for Hubble, for whom Earth’s no place;
a telescope like this belongs up in space.

I is for Ions, making nebulae glow;
as they find electrons, we capture the show.

J is for Jets, from a galaxy’s core,
if you feed them right, they’ll be active once more!

K is for Kepler, whose great laws of motion
keep planets on course in the great cosmic ocean.

L is for Libration, which makes our Moon rock,
it’s a trick of the orbit; it’s tidally locked!

M is for Meteors, which come in a shower,
if skies are just right, you’ll see hundreds an hour!

N is for Nebula, what forms when stars die,
this recycled fuel makes cosmic apple pie.

O is for Opaque, why the Milky Way’s dark,
these cosmic dust lanes make starlight appear stark!

P is for Pulsar, a spinning neutron star,
as the orbits tick by, we know just when we are.

Q is for Quasar, a great radio source,
accelerating matter with little remorse.

R is for Rings, all gas giants possess them,
even one found in another sun’s system!

S is for Spacetime, which curves due to matter,
this Universe-fabric can bend but won’t shatter!

T is for Tides, caused by gravity’s tune,
our oceans bulge out from the Sun and the Moon.

U is the Universe, our goal’s understanding,
with billions of galaxies, as spacetime’s expanding!

V is for Virgo, our nearest great cluster,
with thousands of galaxies, it’s a gut-buster!

W is for Wavelength, the energies of light,
that tell us what atoms are in stars just from sight!

X is for X-rays, high-energy light,
where bursts of new stars show an ionized might.

Y is the Year, where we orbit our Sun,
each planet’s is different; the Earth’s is just one.

Z is for Zenith, so gaze up at the sky!
The Universe is here; let’s learn what, how and why.

Source: Starts With A Bang!
Image credit: Galaxy Zoo’s writing tool

Why the Haber process saved everyone in the early 20th century

Fritz Haber, a German by nationality and a chemist by occupation. Contributed to saving the worlds food production going by using a special process to make ammonia that could be used in fertilizers. This would increase the worlds food production that was needed incredibly, due to the rise in population and of course the world war.

This process was eventually named the “Haber process”, after the man who won the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1918 and he definitely, most certainly earned it.

So, what is this Haber process?

Well, in a nutshell, it uses this thing called dynamic equilibrium.

Dynamic equilibrium is simply a state of balance between two things. In this case, we have a reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen in the ratio 3:1, the reaction is reversible which means it goes forward and backward from the reactants to the products. But this is a problem because not all of the nitrogen will convert into ammonia, and then the reaction will reach a dynamic equilibrium.

Below is the equation for the reaction, the half arrow sign simply means “reversible”.

image

NITROGEN is extracted from the air through fractional distillation!

And Hydrogen can be extracted from hydrocarbons such as methane!! (easier to do than water) 

image

Dynamic equilibrium is reached when the reaction is over, and the maximum amount of ammonia is produced. 

Read More

fuckyeahfluiddynamics:

A water droplet can rebound completely without spreading from a superhydrophobic surface. The photo above is a long exposure image showing the trajectory of such a droplet as it bounces. In the initial bounces, the droplet leaves the surface fully, following a parabolic path with each rebound. The droplet’s kinetic energy is sapped with each rebound by surface deformation and vibration, making each bounce smaller than the last. Viscosity damps the drop’s vibrations, and the droplet eventually comes to rest after twenty or so rebounds. (Image credit: D. Richard and D. Quere)

fuckyeahfluiddynamics:

A water droplet can rebound completely without spreading from a superhydrophobic surface. The photo above is a long exposure image showing the trajectory of such a droplet as it bounces. In the initial bounces, the droplet leaves the surface fully, following a parabolic path with each rebound. The droplet’s kinetic energy is sapped with each rebound by surface deformation and vibration, making each bounce smaller than the last. Viscosity damps the drop’s vibrations, and the droplet eventually comes to rest after twenty or so rebounds. (Image credit: D. Richard and D. Quere)

bbsrc:

Have a happy Easter, full of happy eggs
It is probably not uppermost in your mind when you dye eggs for Easter that you are depending on an invisible structure called the cuticle being present for the eggs to colour properly. But the amount of change in colour you see depends on how much cuticle is present on the egg.
Having colourful Easter eggs is good news, but more importantly this same cuticle prevents bacteria entering the egg. This reduces the chance of bacteria reaching the developing chick if the egg is fertile and keeps the non-fertile eggs we eat safe.
Industry and BBSRC-funded scientist are developing tools which are better, although less colourful, to measure the amount of cuticle on an egg. This will allow genetic selection to improve the cuticle and improve egg safety. 
Research from: The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, Lohmann Tierzucht and Aviagen

Image of the green eggs from Norrie Russell. 
Images of the bowl of dyed eggs from Hannah Dunn.
Zoom Info
bbsrc:

Have a happy Easter, full of happy eggs
It is probably not uppermost in your mind when you dye eggs for Easter that you are depending on an invisible structure called the cuticle being present for the eggs to colour properly. But the amount of change in colour you see depends on how much cuticle is present on the egg.
Having colourful Easter eggs is good news, but more importantly this same cuticle prevents bacteria entering the egg. This reduces the chance of bacteria reaching the developing chick if the egg is fertile and keeps the non-fertile eggs we eat safe.
Industry and BBSRC-funded scientist are developing tools which are better, although less colourful, to measure the amount of cuticle on an egg. This will allow genetic selection to improve the cuticle and improve egg safety. 
Research from: The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, Lohmann Tierzucht and Aviagen

Image of the green eggs from Norrie Russell. 
Images of the bowl of dyed eggs from Hannah Dunn.
Zoom Info

bbsrc:

Have a happy Easter, full of happy eggs

It is probably not uppermost in your mind when you dye eggs for Easter that you are depending on an invisible structure called the cuticle being present for the eggs to colour properly. But the amount of change in colour you see depends on how much cuticle is present on the egg.

Having colourful Easter eggs is good news, but more importantly this same cuticle prevents bacteria entering the egg. This reduces the chance of bacteria reaching the developing chick if the egg is fertile and keeps the non-fertile eggs we eat safe.

Industry and BBSRC-funded scientist are developing tools which are better, although less colourful, to measure the amount of cuticle on an egg. This will allow genetic selection to improve the cuticle and improve egg safety. 

Research from: The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, Lohmann Tierzucht and Aviagen

Image of the green eggs from Norrie Russell.

Images of the bowl of dyed eggs from Hannah Dunn.

Leonardo da Vinci and the Realistic Depiction of the Earth’s Surface

“The Hills of Tuscany” or “Landscape with River” (sometimes identified as the Arno), da Vinci’s oldest known work (dated to 1473) is considered one of the first realistic landscape-views. Leonardo used oblique construction lines and two vanishing points at the horizon (note the fields on the right corner) to achieve a geometric perspective.
Also the layers of the earth, shown above the waterfall (center of an image), are not only geologically correct (thin at the bottom and thick on the top, like the Turbidite sequences found in the Apennines) but work also as horizontal construction lines.

Valdarno: “my” land, “my” geology. 

Leonardo da Vinci and the Realistic Depiction of the Earth’s Surface

“The Hills of Tuscany” or “Landscape with River” (sometimes identified as the Arno), da Vinci’s oldest known work (dated to 1473) is considered one of the first realistic landscape-views. Leonardo used oblique construction lines and two vanishing points at the horizon (note the fields on the right corner) to achieve a geometric perspective.

Also the layers of the earth, shown above the waterfall (center of an image), are not only geologically correct (thin at the bottom and thick on the top, like the Turbidite sequences found in the Apennines) but work also as horizontal construction lines.

Valdarno: “my” land, “my” geology. 

skunkbear:

Close-ups of butterfly wing scales! You should definitely click on these images to get the full detail.
I’ve paired each amazing close-up (by macro photographer Linden Gledhill) with an image of the corresponding butterfly or moth.  The featured lepidoptera* are (in order of appearance):
Madagascar diadem Hypolimnas dexithea (photo by Michel-Georges Bernard)
Comet moth Argema mittrei (photo by Axel Strauß)
Sunset moth Chrysiridia rhipheus (photo from Wikimedia Commons) 
Giant Blue Morpho Morpho didius (photo by Didier Descouens, Muséum de Toulouse)
Rippon’s Birdwing Troides hypolitus (photo by Robert Nash, Ulster Museum)
*Lepidoptera (the scientific order that includes moths and butterflies) means “scaly wing.” The scales get their color not from pigment - but from microscopic structures that manipulate light.
The great science youtube channel “Smarter Every Day” has two videos on this very subject that I highly recommend:
Zoom Info
skunkbear:

Close-ups of butterfly wing scales! You should definitely click on these images to get the full detail.
I’ve paired each amazing close-up (by macro photographer Linden Gledhill) with an image of the corresponding butterfly or moth.  The featured lepidoptera* are (in order of appearance):
Madagascar diadem Hypolimnas dexithea (photo by Michel-Georges Bernard)
Comet moth Argema mittrei (photo by Axel Strauß)
Sunset moth Chrysiridia rhipheus (photo from Wikimedia Commons) 
Giant Blue Morpho Morpho didius (photo by Didier Descouens, Muséum de Toulouse)
Rippon’s Birdwing Troides hypolitus (photo by Robert Nash, Ulster Museum)
*Lepidoptera (the scientific order that includes moths and butterflies) means “scaly wing.” The scales get their color not from pigment - but from microscopic structures that manipulate light.
The great science youtube channel “Smarter Every Day” has two videos on this very subject that I highly recommend:
Zoom Info
skunkbear:

Close-ups of butterfly wing scales! You should definitely click on these images to get the full detail.
I’ve paired each amazing close-up (by macro photographer Linden Gledhill) with an image of the corresponding butterfly or moth.  The featured lepidoptera* are (in order of appearance):
Madagascar diadem Hypolimnas dexithea (photo by Michel-Georges Bernard)
Comet moth Argema mittrei (photo by Axel Strauß)
Sunset moth Chrysiridia rhipheus (photo from Wikimedia Commons) 
Giant Blue Morpho Morpho didius (photo by Didier Descouens, Muséum de Toulouse)
Rippon’s Birdwing Troides hypolitus (photo by Robert Nash, Ulster Museum)
*Lepidoptera (the scientific order that includes moths and butterflies) means “scaly wing.” The scales get their color not from pigment - but from microscopic structures that manipulate light.
The great science youtube channel “Smarter Every Day” has two videos on this very subject that I highly recommend:
Zoom Info
skunkbear:

Close-ups of butterfly wing scales! You should definitely click on these images to get the full detail.
I’ve paired each amazing close-up (by macro photographer Linden Gledhill) with an image of the corresponding butterfly or moth.  The featured lepidoptera* are (in order of appearance):
Madagascar diadem Hypolimnas dexithea (photo by Michel-Georges Bernard)
Comet moth Argema mittrei (photo by Axel Strauß)
Sunset moth Chrysiridia rhipheus (photo from Wikimedia Commons) 
Giant Blue Morpho Morpho didius (photo by Didier Descouens, Muséum de Toulouse)
Rippon’s Birdwing Troides hypolitus (photo by Robert Nash, Ulster Museum)
*Lepidoptera (the scientific order that includes moths and butterflies) means “scaly wing.” The scales get their color not from pigment - but from microscopic structures that manipulate light.
The great science youtube channel “Smarter Every Day” has two videos on this very subject that I highly recommend:
Zoom Info
skunkbear:

Close-ups of butterfly wing scales! You should definitely click on these images to get the full detail.
I’ve paired each amazing close-up (by macro photographer Linden Gledhill) with an image of the corresponding butterfly or moth.  The featured lepidoptera* are (in order of appearance):
Madagascar diadem Hypolimnas dexithea (photo by Michel-Georges Bernard)
Comet moth Argema mittrei (photo by Axel Strauß)
Sunset moth Chrysiridia rhipheus (photo from Wikimedia Commons) 
Giant Blue Morpho Morpho didius (photo by Didier Descouens, Muséum de Toulouse)
Rippon’s Birdwing Troides hypolitus (photo by Robert Nash, Ulster Museum)
*Lepidoptera (the scientific order that includes moths and butterflies) means “scaly wing.” The scales get their color not from pigment - but from microscopic structures that manipulate light.
The great science youtube channel “Smarter Every Day” has two videos on this very subject that I highly recommend:
Zoom Info

skunkbear:

Close-ups of butterfly wing scales! You should definitely click on these images to get the full detail.

I’ve paired each amazing close-up (by macro photographer Linden Gledhill) with an image of the corresponding butterfly or moth.  The featured lepidoptera* are (in order of appearance):

*Lepidoptera (the scientific order that includes moths and butterflies) means “scaly wing.” The scales get their color not from pigment - but from microscopic structures that manipulate light.

The great science youtube channel “Smarter Every Day” has two videos on this very subject that I highly recommend:

neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info
neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain
For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.
By Voxy.
Zoom Info

neuromorphogenesis:

Language and Your Brain

For centuries, researchers have studied the brain to find exactly where mechanisms for producing and interpreting language reside. Theories abound on how humans acquire new languages and how our developing brains learn to process languages.

By Voxy.