Scientists visualise the scars left by heart attacks
These images show (A) a healthy heart and (B) a heart damaged due to a lack of oxygen during a heart attack.
As you can see, the microstructure of a heart changes after a heart attack (B). The scar (outlined area), is formed because of the tissue death caused by a local lack of oxygen, and the consistency of muscle cell arrangement compared to the healthy heart (A) is lost. This will affect how much blood the heart can pump into the body within one heartbeat.
The images taken by BBSRC-funded researchers at the British Heart Foundation Experimental Magnetic Resonance Unit (BMRU), University of Oxford, were generated by a special type of imaging technique that measures the motion and movement of water molecules in the heart tissue.
This new technology, that Dr Jurgen Schneider and his team have developed, could eventually allow doctors to be able to look at a 3D+T representation of the patient’s heart, zoom-in on any relevant detail (a coronary vessel blockage or a damaged part of tissue), assess treatment options, and predict outcomes for the specific individual before the patient even enters the operating theatre. Much of this vision is still far ahead. Nonetheless, this research is vital to its development.
Image credit: BHF Experimental MR Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford.
Read more on how BBSRC-funded scientists are trying to mend broken hearts: http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/health/2014/140214-n-helping-mend-broken-hearts.aspx
The Green Flash
"Given a clear path to the horizon — such as over the ocean — this means that there’s a slight region of space just above the reddened Sun where only the shorter wavelength light is visible!
And when that happens, in addition to the normal color gradient that comes with a sunset, you can also get a small, separate region above the disk of the Sun that appears yellow, green, or even blue! (And much fainter than the rest of the Sun!)”
During sunset, the Sun appears to redden, dim, and eventually sink below the horizon. Every once in a while, a rare phenomenon emerges along with it: a green flash, where a greenish-colored beam of light appears just over the Sun. What causes it? One of the most beautiful natural phenomena our planet has to offer, explained in glorious detail.
New Research: Fossils of New Squirrel-like Species Support Earlier Origin of Mammals
A research team led by paleontologists at the American Museum of Natural History and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have described three new small squirrel-like species that place a poorly understood Mesozoic group of animals firmly in the mammal family tree. The study, published today in the journal Nature, supports the idea that mammals originated at least 208 million years ago in the late Triassic, much earlier than some previous research suggests.
The three new species—Shenshou lui, Xianshou linglong, and Xianshou songae—are described from six nearly complete 160-million-year-old fossils found in China. The animals, which researchers have placed in a new group, or clade, called Euharamiyida, likely looked similar to small squirrels. They weighed between 1 and 10 ounces and had tails and feet that indicate that they were tree dwellers.
Based on the age of the Euharamiyida species and their kin, the divergence of mammals from reptiles had to have happened much earlier than some research has estimated. Instead of originating in the middle Jurassic (between 176 and 161 million years ago), mammals likely first appeared in the late Triassic (between 235 and 201 million years ago).