Science Junkie

NPR Science: Sorry, Lucy: The Myth Of The Misused Brain Is 100 Percent False

ERIC WESTERVELT, HOST:
If you went to the movie theater this weekend, you might've caught the latest Scarlett Johansson action movie called "Lucy." It's about a woman who develops superpowers by harnessing the full potential of her brain.
(SOUNDBITE OF FILM, "LUCY")
SCARLETT JOHANSSON: I'm able to do things I've never done before. I feel everything and I can control the elements around me.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: That's amazing.
WESTERVELT: You've probably heard this idea before. Most people only use 10% of their brains. The other 90% of the basically dormant. Well, in the movie "Lucy," Morgan Freeman gives us this what-if scenario?
(SOUNDBITE OF FILM, "LUCY")
MORGAN FREEMAN: What if there was a way of accessing 100% of our brain? What might we be capable of?
DAVID EAGLEMAN: We would be capable of exactly what we're doing now, which is to say, we do use a hundred percent of our brain.
WESTERVELT: That is David Eagleman.
EAGLEMAN: I'm a neuroscientist at Baylor College of Medicine.
WESTERVELT: And he says, basically, all of us are like Lucy. We use all of our brains, all of time.
EAGLEMAN: Even when you're just sitting around doing nothing your brain is screaming with activity all the time, around the clock; even when you're asleep it's screaming with activity.
WESTERVELT: In other words, this is a total myth. Very wrong, but still very popular. Take this clip from an Ellen DeGeneres stand-up special.
(SOUNDBITE OF STAND-UP SPECIAL)
ELLEN DEGENERES: It's true, they say we use ten percent of our brain. Ten percent of our brain. And I think, imagine what we could accomplish if we used the other 60 percent? Do you know what I'm saying?
AUDIENCE: (LAUGHTER).
(SOUNDBITE OF FILM, "TOMMY BOY")
DAVID SPADE: Let's say the average person uses ten percent of their brain.
WESTERVELT: It's even in the movie "Tommy Boy."
(SOUNDBITE OF FILM, "TOMMY BOY")
SPADE: How much do you use? One and a half percent. The rest is clogged with malted hops and bong residue.
WESTERVELT: Ariana Anderson is a researcher at UCLA. She looks at brain scans all day long. And she says, if someone were actually using just ten percent of their brain capacity...
ARIANA ANDERSON: Well, they would probably be declared brain-dead.
WESTERVELT: Sorry, "Tommy Boy." No one knows exactly where this myth came from but it's been around since at least the early 1900's. So why is this wrong idea still so popular?
ANDERSON: Probably gives us some sort of hope that if we are doing things we shouldn't do, such as watching too much TV, alcohol abuse, well, it might be damaging our brain but it's probably damaging the 90 percent that we don't use. And that's not true. Whenever you're doing something that damages your brain, it's damaging something that's being used, and it's going to leave some sort of deficit behind.
EAGLEMAN: For a long time I've wondered, why is this such a sticky myth?
WESTERVELT: Again, David Eagleman.
EAGLEMAN: And I think it's because it gives us a sense that there's something there to be unlocked, that we could be so much better than we could. And really, this has the same appeal as any fairytale or superhero story. I mean, it's the neural equivalent to Peter Parker becoming Spiderman.
WESTERVELT: In other words, it's an idea that belongs in Hollywood.
Dinosaur-killing asteroid hit at just the wrong time
Animals might have survived if impact happened a few million years earlier or later.
Just before a large asteroid slammed into the Earth 66 million years ago, the diversity of plant-eating dinosaur species declined slightly, a new study suggests. That minor shift may have been enough to doom all dinosaurs when the space rock hit.
The scarcity of plant-eaters would have left them more vulnerable to starvation and population collapse after the impact, with consequences that rippled all the way up the food chain.
“The asteroid hit at a particularly bad time,” says Stephen Brusatte, a palaeontologist at the University of Edinburgh, UK. “If it had hit a few million years earlier or later, dinosaurs probably would have been much better equipped to survive.”
Brusatte and his colleagues describe this nuanced view of the famous extinction in Biological Reviews.
Read more @Nature.

Dinosaur-killing asteroid hit at just the wrong time

Animals might have survived if impact happened a few million years earlier or later.

Just before a large asteroid slammed into the Earth 66 million years ago, the diversity of plant-eating dinosaur species declined slightly, a new study suggests. That minor shift may have been enough to doom all dinosaurs when the space rock hit.

The scarcity of plant-eaters would have left them more vulnerable to starvation and population collapse after the impact, with consequences that rippled all the way up the food chain.

“The asteroid hit at a particularly bad time,” says Stephen Brusatte, a palaeontologist at the University of Edinburgh, UK. “If it had hit a few million years earlier or later, dinosaurs probably would have been much better equipped to survive.”

Brusatte and his colleagues describe this nuanced view of the famous extinction in Biological Reviews.

Read more @Nature.

Life on Earth
Single Primordial AncestorThe living organisms are composed of cells and despite the many differences in appearance and function, all cells have three elements in common: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA.  Similar biochemical reactions that constitute the metabolism (development, energy production, waste disposal) take place inside the cells. And they contain the hereditary information encoded in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid, that direct the cellular activities and reproduction. These shared characteristics and the presence of identical or almost identical molecules, demonstrate that every living being is related and they descend from a common ancestor.Multiple Primordial AncestorsNobody can be positive that various types of life didn’t originate on our planet, billions of years ago. But, even if that happened, these hypothetical forms of life —different from the one we know— must have gone extinct very “quickly”, without leaving any trace. The fossil record, instead, tell us that the first cells go back at least 3.5 billion years, they belong to a cyanobacteria-like organism and they are very similar to the modern ones.Current Primordial Ancestors FormationOkay, but why aren’t new “ancestors” forming on present-day Earth?  There are two problems. The chemical composition of the oceans and the competition. In the Precambrian, there was no oxygen in the atmosphere/hydrosphere and there was a lot of CO2. Although it may seem absurd, this reducing environment was more conducive to the development of life as we know it. Then, those organisms have evolved, have diversified themselves, have occupied all the possible space, and have become more efficient in exploiting resources, denying the possibility to any other —at this point ineffective— pre-biotic system to develop.

Image: [x]Asked by danielx9
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Life on Earth
Single Primordial AncestorThe living organisms are composed of cells and despite the many differences in appearance and function, all cells have three elements in common: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA.  Similar biochemical reactions that constitute the metabolism (development, energy production, waste disposal) take place inside the cells. And they contain the hereditary information encoded in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid, that direct the cellular activities and reproduction. These shared characteristics and the presence of identical or almost identical molecules, demonstrate that every living being is related and they descend from a common ancestor.Multiple Primordial AncestorsNobody can be positive that various types of life didn’t originate on our planet, billions of years ago. But, even if that happened, these hypothetical forms of life —different from the one we know— must have gone extinct very “quickly”, without leaving any trace. The fossil record, instead, tell us that the first cells go back at least 3.5 billion years, they belong to a cyanobacteria-like organism and they are very similar to the modern ones.Current Primordial Ancestors FormationOkay, but why aren’t new “ancestors” forming on present-day Earth?  There are two problems. The chemical composition of the oceans and the competition. In the Precambrian, there was no oxygen in the atmosphere/hydrosphere and there was a lot of CO2. Although it may seem absurd, this reducing environment was more conducive to the development of life as we know it. Then, those organisms have evolved, have diversified themselves, have occupied all the possible space, and have become more efficient in exploiting resources, denying the possibility to any other —at this point ineffective— pre-biotic system to develop.

Image: [x]Asked by danielx9
Zoom Info

Life on Earth

Single Primordial Ancestor
The living organisms are composed of cells and despite the many differences in appearance and function, all cells have three elements in common: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA.  Similar biochemical reactions that constitute the metabolism (development, energy production, waste disposal) take place inside the cells. And they contain the hereditary information encoded in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid, that direct the cellular activities and reproduction. These shared characteristics and the presence of identical or almost identical molecules, demonstrate that every living being is related and they descend from a common ancestor.

Multiple Primordial Ancestors
Nobody can be positive that various types of life didn’t originate on our planet, billions of years ago. But, even if that happened, these hypothetical forms of life —different from the one we know— must have gone extinct very “quickly”, without leaving any trace. The fossil record, instead, tell us that the first cells go back at least 3.5 billion years, they belong to a cyanobacteria-like organism and they are very similar to the modern ones.

Current Primordial Ancestors Formation
Okay, but why aren’t new “ancestors” forming on present-day Earth?  There are two problems. The chemical composition of the oceans and the competition. In the Precambrian, there was no oxygen in the atmosphere/hydrosphere and there was a lot of CO2. Although it may seem absurd, this reducing environment was more conducive to the development of life as we know it. Then, those organisms have evolved, have diversified themselves, have occupied all the possible space, and have become more efficient in exploiting resources, denying the possibility to any other —at this point ineffective— pre-biotic system to develop.

Image: [x]
Asked by danielx9

70,000 year-old African settlement unearthed

archaeologicalnews:

image

During ongoing excavations in northern Sudan, Polish archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology in Poznań, have discovered the remains of a settlement estimated to 70,000 years old. This find, according to the researchers, seems to contradict the previously held belief that the construction of permanent structures was associated with the so-called Great Exodus from Africa and occupation of the colder regions of Europe and Asia.

The site known as Affad 23, is currently the only one recorded in the Nile Valley which shows that early Homo sapiens built sizeable permanent structures, and had adapted well to the wetland environment.

This new evidence points to a much more advanced level of human development and adaptation in Africa during the Middle Palaeolithic. Read more.

spaceplasma:

xysciences:

A gif representing nuclear fusion and how it creates energy. 
[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

For those who don’t understand the GIF. It illustrates the Deuterium-Tritium fusion; a deuterium and tritium combine to form a helium-4. Most of the energy released is in the form of the high-energy neutron.
Nuclear fusion has the potential to generate power without the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (energy from splitting heavy atoms  into smaller atoms), but that depends on which atoms you decide to fuse. Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted ¹H, ²H, and ³H. Deuterium (²H) - Tritium (³H) fusion (pictured above) appears to be the best and most effective way to produce energy. Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (adding a proton makes a new element, but adding a neutron makes an isotope of the same atom). 
The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (no neutrons, just one proton, hence the name), deuterium (deuterium comes from the Greek word deuteros, which means “second”, this is in reference two the two particles, a proton and a neutron), and tritium (the name of this comes from the Greek word “tritos” meaning “third”, because guess what, it contains one proton and two neutrons). Here’s a diagram
Deuterium is abundant, it can be extracted from seawater, but tritium is a  radioactive isotope and must be either derived(bred) from lithium or obtained in the operation of the deuterium cycle. Tritium is also produced naturally in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays strike nitrogen molecules in the air, but that’s extremely rare. It’s also a by product in reactors producing electricity (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant). Tritium is a low energy beta emitter (unable to penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin), it has a relatively long half life and short biological half life. It is not dangerous externally, however emissions from inhaled or ingested beta particle emitters pose a significant health risk.
During fusion (energy from combining light elements to form heavier ones), two atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium must be brought so close together that they fuse in spite of the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei. So, in order to accomplish nuclear fusion, the two nuclei must first overcome the electric repulsion (coulomb barrier ) to get close enough for the attractive nuclear strong force (force that binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) to take over to fuse the particles. The D-T reaction is the easiest to bring about, it has the lowest energy requirement compared to energy release. The reaction products are helium-4 (the helium isotope) – also called the alpha particle, which carries 1/5 (3.5 MeV) of the total fusion energy in the form of kinetic energy, and a neutron, which carries 4/5 (14.1 MeV). Don’t be alarmed by the alpha particle, the particles are not dangerous in themselves, it is only because of the high speeds at which they are ejected from the nuclei that make them dangerous, but unlike beta or gamma radiation, they are stopped by a piece of paper.

spaceplasma:

xysciences:

A gif representing nuclear fusion and how it creates energy. 

[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

For those who don’t understand the GIF. It illustrates the Deuterium-Tritium fusion; a deuterium and tritium combine to form a helium-4. Most of the energy released is in the form of the high-energy neutron.

Nuclear fusion has the potential to generate power without the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (energy from splitting heavy atoms  into smaller atoms), but that depends on which atoms you decide to fuse. Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted ¹H, ²H, and ³H. Deuterium (²H) - Tritium (³H) fusion (pictured above) appears to be the best and most effective way to produce energy. Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (adding a proton makes a new element, but adding a neutron makes an isotope of the same atom). 

The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (no neutrons, just one proton, hence the name), deuterium (deuterium comes from the Greek word deuteros, which means “second”, this is in reference two the two particles, a proton and a neutron), and tritium (the name of this comes from the Greek word “tritos” meaning “third”, because guess what, it contains one proton and two neutrons). Here’s a diagram

Deuterium is abundant, it can be extracted from seawater, but tritium is a  radioactive isotope and must be either derived(bred) from lithium or obtained in the operation of the deuterium cycle. Tritium is also produced naturally in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays strike nitrogen molecules in the air, but that’s extremely rare. It’s also a by product in reactors producing electricity (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant). Tritium is a low energy beta emitter (unable to penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin), it has a relatively long half life and short biological half life. It is not dangerous externally, however emissions from inhaled or ingested beta particle emitters pose a significant health risk.

During fusion (energy from combining light elements to form heavier ones), two atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium must be brought so close together that they fuse in spite of the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei. So, in order to accomplish nuclear fusion, the two nuclei must first overcome the electric repulsion (coulomb barrier ) to get close enough for the attractive nuclear strong force (force that binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) to take over to fuse the particles. The D-T reaction is the easiest to bring about, it has the lowest energy requirement compared to energy release. The reaction products are helium-4 (the helium isotope) – also called the alpha particle, which carries 1/5 (3.5 MeV) of the total fusion energy in the form of kinetic energy, and a neutron, which carries 4/5 (14.1 MeV). Don’t be alarmed by the alpha particle, the particles are not dangerous in themselves, it is only because of the high speeds at which they are ejected from the nuclei that make them dangerous, but unlike beta or gamma radiation, they are stopped by a piece of paper.

hydrogeneportfolio:

"Maybe we’re on Mars because of the magnificent science that can be done there - the gates of the wonder world are opening in our time. Maybe we’re on Mars because we have to be, because there’s a deep nomadic impulse built into us by the evolutionary process, we come after all, from hunter gatherers, and for 99.9% of our tenure on Earth we’ve been wanderers. And, the next place to wander to, is Mars. But whatever the reason you’re on Mars is, I’m glad you’re there. And I wish I was with you.”
— Carl Sagan

hydrogeneportfolio:

"Maybe we’re on Mars because of the magnificent science that can be done there - the gates of the wonder world are opening in our time. Maybe we’re on Mars because we have to be, because there’s a deep nomadic impulse built into us by the evolutionary process, we come after all, from hunter gatherers, and for 99.9% of our tenure on Earth we’ve been wanderers. And, the next place to wander to, is Mars. But whatever the reason you’re on Mars is, I’m glad you’re there. And I wish I was with you.

 Carl Sagan

aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info
aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.
(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.
Zoom Info

aconitum-napellus:

Fossils at Monmouth Beach. Lyme Regis, Dorset. We were all so excited over these! So many happy memories from my childhood, and hopefully making happy memories for my children. It was so amazing to be in a place that helped to change history so spectacularly. You can almost feel the fin de siecle anxiety in the air, see the Victorians walking on the beach, see Hardy thinking up that passage in A Pair of Blue Eyes, Mary Anning finding her fossils. And you just can’t get it into your head that you’re looking at creatures that are hundreds of millions of years old. It’s too big to grasp.

(I have over 150 of these photos. Be grateful you only got 10.)

Certain places on this planet force mankind to think.

How To Make A Rocket | Do Try This At Home | At-Bristol Science Centre

How do you launch a rocket into space? Can you make a rocket at home? Sarah and Violaine of the Live Science Team show you everything you need to know about rocket science!

txchnologist:

To celebrate the 15th anniversary of NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, four new images of supernova remnants are being released. These spectacular cosmic vistas are the glowing debris fields that were created when massive stars exploded at the ends of their lives.
Chandra, one of NASA’s current “Great Observatories,” along with the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope, is specially designed to detect X-ray emission from hot and energetic regions of the universe. It obits up to 86,500 miles above the Earth.
To celebrate Chandra’s 15th anniversary, four new images of supernova remnants – the Crab Nebula, Tycho, G292.0+1.8, and 3C58 – were released by the space agency. These supernova remnants are very hot and energetic and glow brightly in X-ray light, which allows Chandra to capture them in exquisite detail. See a larger version here.
Courtesy NASA.
Read More

txchnologist:

To celebrate the 15th anniversary of NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, four new images of supernova remnants are being released. These spectacular cosmic vistas are the glowing debris fields that were created when massive stars exploded at the ends of their lives.

Chandra, one of NASA’s current “Great Observatories,” along with the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope, is specially designed to detect X-ray emission from hot and energetic regions of the universe. It obits up to 86,500 miles above the Earth.

To celebrate Chandra’s 15th anniversary, four new images of supernova remnants – the Crab Nebula, Tycho, G292.0+1.8, and 3C58 – were released by the space agency. These supernova remnants are very hot and energetic and glow brightly in X-ray light, which allows Chandra to capture them in exquisite detail. See a larger version here.

Courtesy NASA.

Read More