Science Junkie
Happy birthday, Nicolaus Copernicus
February 19, 1473. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on this date, 540 years ago. Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and mathematician. He lived at a time when people believed Earth lay enclosed within crystal spheres at the center of the universe. Can you picture the leap of imagination required for him to conceive of a sun-centered universe? The publication of Copernicus’ book – De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) – just before his death in 1543, set the stage for all of modern astronomy. Today, people speak of his work as the Copernican Revolution.

Happy birthday, Nicolaus Copernicus

February 19, 1473. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on this date, 540 years ago. Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and mathematician. He lived at a time when people believed Earth lay enclosed within crystal spheres at the center of the universe. Can you picture the leap of imagination required for him to conceive of a sun-centered universe? The publication of Copernicus’ book – De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) – just before his death in 1543, set the stage for all of modern astronomy. Today, people speak of his work as the Copernican Revolution.

The Cult of Nikola Tesla

by Brian Dunning.

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No personality in the history of science has been pushed further into the realm of mythology than the Serbian-American electrical engineer Nikola Tesla. He is, without a doubt, one of the true giants in the history of electromagnetic theory. […] Tesla’s unparalleled combination of genius and aberrance have turned him into one of the seminal cult figures of the day. As such, at least as much fiction as fact have swirled around popular accounts of his life, and devotees of conspiracy theories and alternative science hypotheses have hijacked his name more than that of any other figure. 

In order to put it in the proper perspective, we have to first clear up a popular misconception. Tesla did not invent alternating current, which is what he’s best remembered for. AC had been around for a quarter century before he was born, which was in 1856 in what’s now Croatia. While Tesla was a young man working as a telephone engineer, other men around Europe were already developing AC transformers and setting up experimental power transmission grids to send alternating current over long distances. Tesla’s greatest early development was in his mind: a rotary magnetic field, which would make possible an electric induction motor that could run directly from AC, unlike all existing electric motors, which were DC. […] Tesla built a working prototype, but only two years after another inventor, Galileo Ferraris, had also independently conceived the rotary magnetic field and built his own working prototype. […]

Let’s run through a list of some of the seemingly magical feats attributed to Tesla, beginning with:

Did Tesla invent X-rays?

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Tesla did in fact accidentally create the first X-ray photographs in 1895, although inadvertently, when taking a picture of his friend Mark Twain with an early form of fluorescent tube light called a Geissler tube that, unbeknownst to Tesla, also emitted X-radiation. Before he could investigate further, his lab burned down and he lost all that work. At nearly the same time, Wilhelm Röntgen announced his discovery of the X-ray. Later Tesla experimented with more powerful tubes to create stronger X-rays.

Did Tesla invent radio?

Generally, Tesla did beat Guglielmo Marconi to the demonstration of workable wireless communication and Tesla eventually won all the patent disputes (after his death), though Marconi is the one who shared a Nobel Prize for it. However, both men had been building upon theory and experimentation by dozens of other researchers going back nearly a full century. Patents for various types of wireless communication had begun to be filed by other inventors thirty years before either man. […]

Did Tesla really sit in the middle of a room filled with lightning bolts?

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Tesla spent two years in Colorado Springs where the El Paso Electric Company had agreed to give him free power. There he built the world’s largest Tesla coil, the device most often associated with his name. A Tesla coil is a simple type of transformer, taking a low-voltage input and stepping it up to a very high voltage, even over several million volts. […] At full power, enough electrons are sent up that pole that they are forced to burst out into the atmosphere through the torus, creating the familiar lightning-like streamers that characterize Tesla coil demonstrations. Tesla posed for a famous publicity photograph, that you’ve seen many times, of himself sitting in a chair inside his lab taking notes while the air all around him is filled with such streamers from his giant coil. This picture was, unfortunately, a double exposure.

Did Tesla cause a field of light bulbs 26 miles away to illuminate wirelessly?

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He may or may not have. According to biographer John O’Neill, he did, but not quite as magically as is popularly depicted, and no supporting evidence has ever surfaced. Tesla discovered that the function served by the long inner coil could also be served by a different type of conductor, including the Earth itself. He took a Tesla coil and stuck its inner secondary coil into the ground. He input electricity to the primary coil, and this setup caused his current to be sent into the Earth. That current could be received by an identical setup, some 26 miles away, by receiving current from the primary coil. Wired to that receiver coil, he had an array of some 200 conventional incandescent light bulbs set out in a field. So although the light bulbs themselves were conventionally wired to a normal power source, that power was transmitted wirelessly. Whether this grand display ever happened or not (nobody has ever been able to duplicate it, despite many attempts), Tesla did record some of the calculations, and photographs do exist of very small scale experiments conducted locally at his lab. [..]

Did Tesla create ball lightning?

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Ball lightning — the very existence of which is dubious at best — beautifully illustrates the type of mythology that has been built up around Tesla. Many sources say he routinely created ball lightning in Colorado Springs, and there are even carefully edited quotes of Tesla’s purporting to describe it. In fact, Tesla is not known to have ever mentioned ball lightning in any of his writing or speaking, and no record from his time is known to exist stating that he created, demonstrated, or knew about anything that could reasonably be called ball lightning […]

Did Tesla plan to transmit power world-wide through the sky?

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It was his ultimate plan, but the farthest he ever got was the partial construction of his famous tower at Wardenclyffe which was intended for wireless communication across the Atlantic. His worldwide wireless power system was theoretical only, employing the Schumann-Tesla resonance to charge the Earth’s ionosphere such that a simple handheld coil could receive electrical power for free anywhere, and everywhere, in the world. Tesla’s idea was innovative, but innovative idea it remained, as debts mounted and the tower was dismantled before it ever got to be used. Physicists now consider Tesla’s concept unworkable, and no attempts to test it have ever worked. All sorts of conspiracy theories exist, for example that the HAARP research facility in Alaska is secretly a test of Tesla’s worldwide power grid, or some sort of superweapon based on it. The profound differences between these systems become clear upon doing even the most basic of research.

Did Tesla invent a Death Ray?

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Investment in Tesla’s projects stopped with the advent of the Great Depression in the 1930s. During the final decade of his life, Tesla was essentially penniless and living in a New York hotel, consumed by what we think today was probably obsessive compulsive disorder. It was during this period — and not earlier during his productive laboratory years — that he openly spoke of having built and tested a Death Ray. None of Tesla’s lab assistants ever corroborated this, and no papers, prototypes, or evidence have ever surfaced. He gave vague descriptions with only inadequate hints of what type of technology such a weapon might use. Whether this was mere showmanship to attract new investment, was a legitimate but unknown concept, or was only the ramblings of a deteriorating mind, will probably never be known.

Did the government seize all his notes upon his death?

Yes, they did. Tesla died in January of 1943, during some of the darkest hours of World War II. […] The year before, nearly all Japanese Americans were imprisoned in an effort to prevent spying. So it wasn’t that big of a stretch for the government, having heard his claims of a Death Ray, to employ a statute enacted during World War I that enabled an Alien Property Custodian to seize all assets of any enemy during wartime — even though Tesla was an American citizen. They entered his New York hotel room and seized all his documents, which was all that remained of his life’s work by that time. It wasn’t very much, as Tesla’s habit throughout his life was to keep plans in his head. […]

Appreciate the man, not the myth.

Hardly anything written about Nikola Tesla fails to exaggerate his inventions and deify the man. Factually wrong descriptions of his accomplishments are found all over the place. His name is broadly smeared by association with virtually every crank conspiracy theory on the planet. […] Taking the trouble to learn about Tesla, about his unique personal history and about the reality of what his true contributions were, will always put you on firmer ground than accepting the untrue exaggerated or conspiratorial claims. Whenever you hear a good scientist’s name co-opted and exploited by the promoters of crankery, you should always be skeptical.

Source: skeptoid.com
Images source: [x[x[x[x] [x[x]

Tycho Brahe Not Poisoned After All

There are two bits of historical trivia that people like to cite about the 16th century Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. The first is that he lost part of his nose when it was cut off in a duel in 1566 — the dispute was over a mathematical formula, not a woman as was usually the case, although the argument occurred at a wedding banquet — and had a metal fake nose made to replace it, which he wore strapped to his head in public.

The second is that he suffered a very strange death. According to a first-person account by Johannes Kepler — then a protege of Brahe’s — Brahe was dining with the Danish emperor, and badly needed to relieve himself midway through the meal. But it would have been rude to leave the table before royalty. Back home, he found it was both difficult and painful to urinate. His bladder burst and he died a few days later – perhaps the only person in history to die from good manners.

OR DID HE? In a plot twist straight out of a classic murder mystery, there have been rumors over the last century or so that the famed astronomer was actually murdered. The suspects included Brahe’s distant cousin, Erik Brahe, who supposed carried out the deed on behalf of King Christian IV of Denmark — apparently he suspected Tycho Brahe of sleeping with his mother.

The second possible culprit was Kepler himself — yes, the dude who went on to formulate the laws of planetary motion. Kepler, the theory goes, desired fuller access to his mentor’s extensive catalog of astronomical observations, all of which he inherited upon Brahe’s death. Glory! Riches! A place in the historical pantheon of the greatest astronomers of all time! Who wouldn’t be tempted to slip their mentor a lethal dose of mercury for that?

Yes, it seems incredibly far-fetched, but the rumors are based on a 1901 autopsy of Brahe’s exhumed remains, which found traces of mercury in hairs taken from his beard — and no evidence of kidney stones, the ostensible cause of death recorded by the 16th century physicist who examined Brahe’s body immediately after his death.

But a new analysis by Danish and Czech scientists indicates that this legend is just too good to be true, and that Brahe likely did indeed fall victim to uremia and a burst bladder. As for those toxic levels of mercury, it’s possible they came from Brahe’s metallic nose.

Mercury, or quicksilver, as it is commonly known, is a transition metal, one of five elements that are liquid at standard room temperatures. Frankly, it’s quite lovely as elements go, its beauty belying its deadly nature — a veritable l’element fatale.

(via Cocktail Party Physics, Scientific American Blog Network)