Study solves plant sex mystery
A team of biologists from the University of Leicester has solved a mystery surrounding how plants have sex. The researchers have discovered a pair of proteins made by flowering plants that are vital for the production of the sperm present within each pollen grain.
Scientists already knew that flowering plants, in contrast to animals, require not one, but two sperm cells for successful fertilisation: one to join with the egg cell to produce the embryo and one to join with a second cell to produce the nutrient-rich endosperm inside the seed.
The mystery of this ‘double fertilization’ process is how each single pollen grain is able to produce twin sperm cells.
This breakthrough study from the Twell Laboratory at the University of Leicester, published in the prestigious academic journal The Plant Cell, has found a pair of genes called DAZ1 and DAZ2 that are essential for making twin sperm cells. Plants with mutated versions of DAZ1 and DAZ2 produce pollen grains with a single sperm that is unable to fertilize.
The researchers show that DAZ1 and DAZ2 are controlled by the protein DUO1 that acts as a ‘master switch’ - so that DUO1 and the DAZ1/DAZ2 genes work in tandem to control a gene network that ensures a pair of fertile sperm is made inside each pollen grain.
Image credit: Jerome Twell
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