New model for in vivo studies of mitochondria transport in nerve cells
Scientists have demonstrated a new way to investigate mechanisms at work in Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases, which also could prove useful in the search for effective drugs. For new insights, they turned to the zebrafish, which is transparent in the early stages of its life. The researchers developed a transgenic variety, the “MitoFish,” that enables them to see – within individual neurons of living animals – how brain diseases disturb the transport of mitochondria, the power plants of the cell.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and MS (multiple sclerosis) are quite different in their effects on patients’ cognitive and motor functions, behavior, and prognosis. Yet on the level of individual neurons, common mechanisms can be observed that either cause or accompany nerve degeneration in a number of different diseases. One of these is a disturbance in the transport of mitochondria, organelles that play several vital roles in the life of a cell — above all, delivering energy where it is needed. And in a neuron, an extremely power-hungry cell, that means moving mitochondria all the way down its longest extension, the axon. Studying mitochondria transport in other animal models of neurodegenerative disease, particularly in mice, has been revealing. But the MitoFish model opens up new possibilities.